Links to related work elsewhere
The following are a selection of links to projects elsewhere that relate to MixedMetro, or that deal with similar issues. We are posting them here in the hope that visitors to MixedMetro will also find these sites useful, but no endorsement of the material at links is implied. Please contact us if you have other resources to suggest, or if any of the links listed here need to be updated.
SocScape: Exploring high-resolution demographic grids. (Anna Dmowska, Tomasz Stepinski, and Pawel Netzel, University of Cincinnati.)
A web application for spatial exploration of racial diversity over the entire United States at 90-meter resolution.
Locating neighborhood diversity in the American metropolis
. (Kyle Walker, Center for Urban Studies at Texas Christian University.)
This application is in support of the article in Urban Studies, "Locating neighborhood diversity in the American Metropolis." The article analyzes geographic variations in neighborhood racial and ethnic diversity over time in large metropolitan areas in the United States.
The key metric in this article is the neighborhood-level entropy index (called "diversity score" in the application), which measures the degree of neighborhood diversity for four general racial/ethnic groups:
See also an article by Tanvi Misra at the Atlantic's CityLab here.
U.S. Racial Diversity by County
. (Randal S. Olson, University of Pennsylvania Institute for Biomedical Informatics.)
The U.S. is typically viewed as a melting pot of races and cultures, but recent maps showing the ethnic distribution of the U.S. seem to hint that the U.S. isn't as well-mixed as we all thought. In this visualization, I mapped out the racial/ethnic diversity of the U.S. to give us a better sense of the hotspots of diversity...
Architecture of Segregation: Civil Unrest, the Concentration of Poverty, and Public Policy
. (Paul A. Jargowsky, The Century Foundation.)
... we are witnessing a nationwide return of concentrated poverty that is racial in nature, and that this expansion and continued existence of high-poverty ghettos and barrios is no accident. These neighborhoods are not the value-free outcome of the impartial workings of the housing market. Rather, in large measure, they are the inevitable and predictable consequences of deliberate policy choices.
To address the root causes of urban violence, police-community tensions, and the enduring legacy of racism, the genesis of urban slums and the forces that sustain them must be understood. As a first step in that direction, this report examines the trends in the population and characteristics of neighborhoods of extreme deprivation.
Neighborhood ethnic and racial change trajectories, 1970-2010. (Mike Bader, American University, and Siri Warkantien, Johns Hopkins University.)
This project studies how neighborhood racial integration has changed in the four decades since the legislative successes of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. We were unsatisfied with the traditional methods of studying neighborhood change that focused mostly on defining "integrated" and "segregated" neighborhoods. We thought that the most interesting and important changes occur within integrated neighborhoods and we wanted to identify common patterns of racial change in the four decades since the Civil Rights Movement.
We used a statistical technique to identify the most common types of change among Blacks, Latinos, Asians, and Whites in the metropolitan neighborhoods of the four largest cities in the United States: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston.
Where the White People Live: How self-segregation and concentrated affluence became normal in America. (Alana Semuels, The Atlantic - CityLab.)
Public policy has "focused on the concentration of poverty and residential segregation. This has problematized non-white and high-poverty neighborhoods," said Goetz, the director of the Center for Urban and Rural Affairs at the University of Minnesota, when presenting his findings at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. "It's shielded the other end of the spectrum from scrutiny -- to the point where we think segregation of whites is normal."
Geography. Place. Culture. Fifty-six states of diversity (2011). (Carlo Abruzzese.)
Each "map" represents a different state or territory in the U.S. The size of each piece relates to the population size of the area.
Each "map" represents 100% of the population for that state. Each color, including white, represents one of the seven ethnic groups (as defined by the U.S. Census). For example, a state that is 1/4 Black, 1/4 White and 1/2 Hispanic would be painted 25%, 25% and 50% of each corresponding color, respectively.
The graphic design of each piece is an interpretation of County-by-County statistics showing locations and patterns of population groups within the state.
All information is from the U.S.Census 2010 and the Pew Hispanic Center.
all images: acrylic, graphite, ink, colored pencil on mylar
The Enduring False Narratives of Segregation: Two generations after the civil rights era, many urban Americans are actually more segregated than ever. . (Emily Badger, The Atlantic - CityLab.)
The September issue of The Atlantic, now available online, includes a "Chartist" feature that graphically synthesizes some of the research we've covered at Cities on the changing shape of segregation in America since the 1960s, its consequences and its costs for everyone.
Several people helped me pull together some of the data points mentioned in the magazine, notably the University of California Berkeley's Rucker Johnson, who has done extensive work on the life outcomes of children who attend segregated schools, and Robert Bullard, who has amassed a frightening collection of research on the health hazards of living in minority communities.
I wanted to share a few more findings that we couldn't squeeze onto the page in the magazine and then throw out some broader questions about why all of these trends persist.
Race and ethnicity 2010. (Eric Fischer.)
Maps of racial and ethnic divisions in US cities, inspired by Bill Rankin's map of Chicago, updated for Census 2010.
A taxonomy of transitions: racial/ethnic self-identification in Chicago in the year 2000. (Bill Rankin.)
Any city-dweller knows that most neighborhoods don't have stark boundaries. Yet on maps, neighborhoods are almost always drawn as perfectly bounded areas, miniature territorial states of ethnicity or class. This is especially true for Chicago, where the delimitation of Chicago's official "community areas" in the 1920s was one of the hallmarks of the famous Chicago School of urban sociology. And maps showing perfectly homogeneous neighborhoods are still published today, in both popular and academic contexts alike.
My alternative is to use dot mapping to show three kinds of urban transitions.
Watch These American Cities Segregate, Even As They Diversify: No, we have not reached the end of segregation. Something much more complicated is going on.. (Emily Badger, The Atlantic - CityLab.)
There is a certain cognitive dissonance to much of this data: Nationwide statistics suggest more blacks and whites now live side-by-side, but plenty of communities have seen no such effect. It appears as if the once-prevalent all-white neighborhood has gone virtually extinct. But its all-black counterpart has not. The number of multi-ethnic neighborhoods in America is on the rise, but recent research suggests that when blacks move out of predominantly black neighborhoods, they usually head to ... other predominantly black neighborhoods.
So are we supposed to pat ourselves on the back here, or what?
Researchers Richard Wright, Steven R. Holloway, and Mark Ellis have offered a more useful way to think about this: New forms of diversity are emerging in America, but so, too, are new forms of segregation.
The Racial Dot Map: One Dot Per Person for the Entire United States. (Dustin Cable, University of Virginia.)
This map is an American snapshot; it provides an accessible visualization of geographic distribution, population density, and racial diversity of the American people in every neighborhood in the entire country. The map displays 308,745,538 dots, one for each person residing in the United States at the location they were counted during the 2010 Census. Each dot is color-coded by the individual's race and ethnicity. The map is presented in both black and white and full color versions. In the color version, each dot is color-coded by race.